When Alpha Brawl is played, after the target creature deals damage to the opponents creatures, do only the ones that survive do damage back?
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Creatures dealt lethal damage will still deal their damage back to Alpha Brawl's target.
From the Oracle rulings, which you can see on the card's Gatherer page:
Why does it work the way it does? Because, in Magic, you carry out the instructions on a card sequentially, but you also do all the actions as one event, and only check for state-based actions and triggers afterward. "This creature took so much damage that it's going to the graveyard now" is a state-based action.
Note also that all creatures killed by Alpha Brawl will go to the graveyard at the same time.
The ruling is right there on gatherer:
All the opponent's creatures will deal damage back, regardless of whether or not they die.