Yes, you will still get the 3/3 Elephant token when you destroy your Rancor with your Terastodon.
Rancor's ability is not a replacement effect, it is a triggered ability. The ability triggers and moves Rancor to your hand after it has already moved to the graveyard. The relevant rule is 112.3c:
Triggered abilities have a trigger condition and an effect. They are written as "[Trigger condition], [effect]," and include (and usually begin with) the word "when," "whenever," or "at." Whenever the trigger event occurs, the ability is put on the stack the next time a player would receive priority and stays there until it's countered, it resolves, or it otherwise leaves the stack. See rule 603, "Handling Triggered Abilities."
So, when your Terastodon's ability resolves targeting Rancor, a few things happen. First, your Rancor is destroyed (and moved to the graveyard) and you get an Elephant token. Then, when the ability has finished resolving, you get priority and Rancor's third ability is put on the stack. Finally, Rancor's ability resolves and it moves from the graveyard to your hand.