I always thought that Go was played by trying to place 5 of your pieces in a row while blocking your opponent from doing so, but I just recently looked up the rules, and it's completely different.
Is the game I was playing real? What is it's name?
I think the name of your game is Go Moku. That is the "five in a row" game.
It's not really similar to Go, except in terms of the name. It can, however, be played on a Go board with black and white stones.
But the objectives and criteria for winning are totally different.
There are two strong possibilities that are both played on a 19x19 board, Pente and Go Moku. Both have as a goal to get 5 in a row. Pente also allows capturing and you can win by capturing 5 pairs of stones.
Pretty good game, I had it confused with Go for the longest time as well. There have been a bunch of editions over the years, you shouldn't have any trouble finding a set.