If there is one noble left in line and you play "fled to England" to discard it (thus, ending the day) do you collect a noble from the new day?
I concur with Pat's answer - I have my copy of the rules in front of me, so can quote chapter and verse!
Essentially, emptying the line of nobles does not end the day, nor is the line immediately refilled with nobles. The day ends at the start of the next player's turn, and as Pat says, a new player will be selected to be start player and thus the first to collect a noble.
My recollection is that when the day ends, the current players turn is over. The next player is the player to the left of the person who started the last day. That player will fill the line with nobles and take their full turn.
Unfortunately I cannot locate my copy right now and the rules don't appear to be online, so I can't give you a direct rules citation at this time.