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The spell on the stack will resolve successfully, even if you name it with Meddling Mage.
The rulings for Meddling Mage say the following:
To clarify the old "played" phrasing (which some people confuse with resolve), the Oracle text actually says:
Since the named spell has already been cast, the existing spell on the stack will still be on the stack after Meddling Mage has entered, and will still resolve.
If you did have a creature that was able to counter or exile a spell on the stack (as opposed to the "named card can't be cast" effect) like Spellstutter Sprite, you could put that into play with Æther Vial and have it work they way you're intending.