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What is "ICM" in Poker Texas Hold'em?

I want to know some mathematical equations in answers on this question, because this part is important for me.

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The Independent Chip Model (ICM) is a way of calculating the right decision when playing the bubble in Texas Hold'em tournaments.

Three players:

A = Player 1's Stack

B = Player 2's Stack

C = Player 3's Stack

T = Total chips in play

A * .5 + B * (A * .3 + C * .2) / (A + C) + C * (A * .3 + B * .2) / (A + B)) / T

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I had a better formula, I will edit when I find it. – bigown Oct 20 '10 at 0:23
what is (A * .5) ? this is equivalent to (A * 5)? – Svisstack Oct 20 '10 at 11:59
@Svisstack: It's 0.5 – bigown Oct 20 '10 at 12:19
@aramis (A * .5) doesn't equal (A * 0.1) – StuperUser Aug 11 '11 at 9:46
(a * 0.5) = (A * (1/2)) =(A*1)/2= A/2 – aramis Aug 12 '11 at 7:13

ICM assumes that each player's chance to win, ability being equal or indeterminable, is proportional to his/her stack size. Chances to come in other positions can be calculated conditionally, allowing an assessment for each player of their equity at any point.

There's a reasonably good explanation (with some equations) here and a calculator to play with here.

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