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14

No, the second one is not valid. There are many different rule sets for Backgammon. However, I'm unaware of any which would allow it. This quote is from Wikipedia. It is footnoted as coming from both Backgammon for Winners, and Hoyle's Rules of Games. A die may not be used to bear off checkers from a lower-numbered point unless there are no checkers ...


13

Since the edit, there are two parts to the remaining question: "When have you definitely lost?" and "How can you tell when you've probably lost?". The first is easier to answer than the second, so I'll start with that. The minimum you can roll on a go is a two and a one (note that a double one would give you four moves). The maximum is double six. So ...


7

A backgammon occurs when you have borne off ALL your checkers, and BOTH of the following are true: 1) Your opponent has one checker in your home area and 2) Your opponent has borne off NO checkers. In this situation, your opponent had ALREADY begun bearing off checkers when he got hit. The fact that this checker was in your home board has no bearing on ...


5

These were all more or less directly copied from the source attributed at the bottom of the answer: Directly rolling a particular number (e.g. 2) 30.55% Rolling a particular double (e.g. 3-3) 2.77% Rolling a particular non-double (e.g. 5-1) 5.54% Rolling any double 16.66% Chance of getting off the bar with one or two pieces and X open points: ...


2

You may also want to look at the following two books from Gambit Publications: How to Use Computers To Improve Your Chess by Christian Kongsted. The second half is specifically on how to use chess computers to improve our play. Secrets of Practical Chess by John Nunn The new edition has an expanded chapter on chess computers. You can download PDF ...


2

For chess there are many ways to use both chess playing programs and database programs: Play over your own games (you should always record your games, even skittles/fun games, to see where you need to improve) in "infinite analysis" mode (where the computer doesn't make moves, it just evaluates the position and finds the best sequence of moves for both ...


2

I have no sources to cite, but I think it depends a lot on your own learning style. You will certainly not learn well if the computer just tells you the best play and you follow it, but if you can carefully think through your move before being told by the computer if it's bad, and if the computer has a better move you can reason out why it's better, ...


2

Two good rules of thumb are, never resign in a position with contact, and resign if the result is "obvious". If you need to stop and think to work it out then it's probably quicker to just play on to a position of certainty anyway - certainly so online where forced moves (and optionally, greedy bearoffs) can be played automatically. It's generally not ...


2

I'd learn the chances for the roll combinations. There are 36 possible rolls, (let's say of one red and one green die) as follows: 6-6: 1/36 11: 2/36 (two 6-5s) 5-5: 1/36 10: 2/36 (two 6-4s) 9: 4/36 (two 6-3s, two 5-4s) 4-4: 1/36 8: 4/36 (two 6-2s, two 5-3s) 7: 6/36 (two 6-1s, two 5-2s, two 4-3s) 3-3: 1/36 6: 4/36 (two 5-1s, two 4-2s) ...


2

Do some statistical analysis on the possible rolls: The average value of all rolls will be zero. 41.667% (5/12ths) of all rolls will be negative. 41.667% (5/12ths) of all rolls will be positive. 16.667% (1/6th) of all rolls will be zero. It seems like it would have a random walk type of effect, with no one being able to move very far (as @tttppp pointed ...


1

The disadvantage of hitting an opposing blot is that you send it to the "bar," where it will re-enter on your home board. That is a bad idea if you have a lot of loose checkers in your home board or coming home, meaning that your opponent will have a number of "retaliation" shots. It is these "retaliation shots" (if they exist), that make it inadvisable to ...


1

This depends heavily on what the opponent has done so far with his runners. If both runners are still on your 1 point, or if only one runner remains in your home board, slotting forward from your 6 point often has a good risk reward. If two split runners exist in your home board (or one runner and one or more opposing men on the bar), you must be much more ...


1

You resign when it is mathematically impossible for you to win, and also, if it is mathematically impossible for your opponent to get a gammon or backgammon. This occurs after contact has been broken off between the two teams (no possibility of further hits). "Mathematically" impossible to win means, give yourself 6-6 the rest of the way, give your opponent ...


1

In professional play I can't say but if it were just you and I playing then I'd say sure you could resign just to finish the game and start a new game. Is it possible that the losing player could win ... yeah but if it's such a remote possibility then I'd call the game just for the sake of entertainment (I.E. lets play again, it's boring just to finish the ...



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