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The economy is in fact over-expanded, particularly in railroad construction, and the weak link turns out to be the banking house of Jay Cooke and Company, which helped the U.S. Government finance the Civil War and also underwrote the construction of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Jay Cooke and Company, a large and respected banking house declares itself bankrupt, and announces its failure on September 18, 1873.. (The bank's collapse precipitates the "Panic of 1873" and the ensuing three yea depression during which more than 10,000 businesses fail.     The basic economic problems are overproduction, a declining market and deflation. Investors in Europe, where a depression is already underway, begin to call in American loans. The New York Stock Exchange closes its doors for 10 days; other businesses fail; and railroad construction is curtailed, with some railroads defaulting on their bonds. The unemployed begin to move about the country seeking jobs, and bread lines appear in the cities. The hard times drove numbers of laboring people and those in humble circumstances to the West and other portions of the country, to seek the rewards which the stagnation of business in the great commercial centre denied them.


Mar
8
comment Most human-like chess AI
@BrianS, Wikipedia says that Alan proposed the imitation test. Alan argued that machines could play a good game of chess, but was explaining that machines can imitate thinking.
Mar
7
comment Most human-like chess AI
you misunderstand. The Turing test is very domain specific (natural language interpretation). A computer designed to succeed at a Turing test would fail at chess. Similarly, Watson is great at Jepordy, but would fail at Chess. Computers are designed with very specific goals. You need to define what play like a human means.
Mar
7
comment Most human-like chess AI
You are really going to need to define what plays like a human means. Yes, computers don't play like humans do, not in the least, but that is probably by design. If you could articulate what you mean by, "play like a human," it might be possible to make a computer act like one. For example, in the Turing test, computers try to trick judges from believing that they are chatting with a human instead of a chat bot. The best chat bots fool judges about 30% of the time (humorously enough, some humans are mistaken for computers).
Mar
6
awarded  Nice Answer
Mar
4
answered Can the Herald put itself on top of your draw deck?
Mar
3
comment Can the Herald put itself on top of your draw deck?
Found the answer, from DonaldX, but i am mobile and cannot write it up yet.
Mar
3
asked Can the Herald put itself on top of your draw deck?
Mar
2
reviewed Close Whats the perfect set for Agricola solo series using E, I, and K decks?
Feb
26
reviewed No Action Needed Good General Strategies for Agricola?
Feb
24
reviewed No Action Needed Why does an open pinfu get 2 extra fu added to the score?
Feb
24
reviewed No Action Needed Where can I play Phase 10 online?
Feb
24
reviewed No Action Needed Unsporting trades in the end-game of settlers of Catan
Feb
21
accepted How likely are you to lose because Fool's Landing sinks into the abyss?
Feb
21
reviewed Leave Closed Where can i sell my CCG cards?
Feb
21
reviewed Leave Closed What are good standard tactics for Dominion?
Feb
21
reviewed Leave Open What should I be trying to do strategically in Through the Ages?
Feb
21
reviewed Close morphing jar in a chaos dragon-like deck. yes or no?
Feb
21
reviewed Approve Leyline of the Void and exiling stolen permanents
Feb
19
comment Playing Cards from Unhinged and Unglued
I think [Mark Rosewater] wizards.com/Magic/Magazine/Article.aspx?x=mtgcom/daily/mr151) had a FAQ for the UN- sets, with "*UN-*official" rulings, but I cannot seem to find it.
Feb
19
revised Can Japanese Cards be played if using an English based Deck?
fixed. added differences.