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The economy is in fact over-expanded, particularly in railroad construction, and the weak link turns out to be the banking house of Jay Cooke and Company, which helped the U.S. Government finance the Civil War and also underwrote the construction of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Jay Cooke and Company, a large and respected banking house declares itself bankrupt, and announces its failure on September 18, 1873.. (The bank's collapse precipitates the "Panic of 1873" and the ensuing three yea depression during which more than 10,000 businesses fail.     The basic economic problems are overproduction, a declining market and deflation. Investors in Europe, where a depression is already underway, begin to call in American loans. The New York Stock Exchange closes its doors for 10 days; other businesses fail; and railroad construction is curtailed, with some railroads defaulting on their bonds. The unemployed begin to move about the country seeking jobs, and bread lines appear in the cities. The hard times drove numbers of laboring people and those in humble circumstances to the West and other portions of the country, to seek the rewards which the stagnation of business in the great commercial centre denied them.


Jan
27
comment Are Magic The Gathering Proxy cards illegal to print?
@ikegami, I don't know precisely, I don't work for Costco. My guess is that the policy is to not print anything that they think isn't owned by the original copyright owner. (I.e. if you bring a wedding photo CD and ask for prints, you need to "claim" that the photos are not professional, that you took them, and possibly give them a release form signed by you that you are releasing them from liability for printing ) In this situation, Costco correctly identified the copyright for the mtg cards as being held by someone other than the person bringing them in.
Jan
27
comment Are Magic The Gathering Proxy cards illegal to print?
@John, it would be quite odd to warn someone of the dangers of "giving legal" advice when they are telling someone not to do something illegal. You seem to be applying that proxies wouldn't qualify for fair use under Rule 3, so you shouldn't proxy. This would be akin to saying you shouldn't kill your wife, because it is murder. (Perhaps if you were giving financial advice as a tax professional and said you shouldn't kill your wife, but failed to note the marriage penalty increases your tax liability, therefore costing you thousands of dollars.)
Jan
27
comment Are Magic The Gathering Proxy cards illegal to print?
@ikegami, you might note that multiple commercial photo printers have adopted similar policies. My guess is a recent court case found that they were liable when making wedding photos for a customer (the photographer sued). Costco is just protecting their own ass.
Jan
26
revised If you have multiple wonders do you get multiple special powers?
added 8 characters in body
Jan
26
revised When can an Ætherling use its blinking ability?
edited body
Jan
26
comment When can an Ætherling use its blinking ability?
Trampling creatures can deal damage to the Player/Planeswalker that they are attacking even if blocked by a creature that is later removed from combat (to prevent that creature from dying)
Jan
26
answered When can an Ætherling use its blinking ability?
Jan
26
answered If you have multiple wonders do you get multiple special powers?
Jan
26
comment Are Magic The Gathering Proxy cards illegal to print?
@JonathanHobbs, I would if I wanted to take the trouble to provide expert references. As it stands now, my claim is just as valid as any other random person on the internet. I at one point was very interested in copyright law with respect to software, but I have forgotten the particulars (and sometimes the LoC's decisions make no sense, (I.e. It is illegal to jailbreak your phone as of 2012))
Jan
26
comment Are Magic The Gathering Proxy cards illegal to print?
@Affe, the point of my comment wasn't that you may be more/less entitled to make a Proxie card if you owns copy of it. My point is that WotC is not an official source for copyright law (or non-biased source), so using them to provide an expert answer is disingenuous.
Jan
26
comment Are Magic The Gathering Proxy cards illegal to print?
How much would it cost to have 12,000 x 4 copies of every magic card? Is that reasonable cost?
Jan
25
comment Are Magic The Gathering Proxy cards illegal to print?
I wouldn't take WotC's word on this, any more than i would take Nintendo's word regarding backup/archival copies of their games. "WARNING:Copying of any Nintendo game is illegal and is strictly prohibited by domestic and international copyright laws. "Back-up" or "archival" copies are not authorized and are not necessary to protect your software. Violators will be prosecuted." (They put that in game manuals) Others disagree with Nintendo's assessment.
Jan
25
comment Are Magic The Gathering Proxy cards illegal to print?
"Shock deals 2 damage to target creature or player." I just violated WotC's copyright, arrest me now.
Jan
25
comment Are Magic The Gathering Proxy cards illegal to print?
If you wanted to print proxies with the artwork, it would require a release form (googling photograph release form will give you many examples). I would assume that WotC/Hasbro has either first printing rights (you would need the artist to release), or they purchased all rights to the artwork (you need WotC's permission). Obtaining either is doubtful.
Jan
25
comment Are Magic The Gathering Proxy cards illegal to print?
You can create proxies without the original artwork all you want.
Jan
25
revised Questions about the game-play of Cluedo
Formatting, grammar, etc.
Jan
25
revised A&A surprise strike on loaded aircraft carrier
added 395 characters in body
Jan
25
answered A&A surprise strike on loaded aircraft carrier
Jan
25
revised Questions about the game-play of Cluedo
added 104 characters in body
Jan
25
revised Questions about the game-play of Cluedo
added game boards and corrected amswer from desogner