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The economy is in fact over-expanded, particularly in railroad construction, and the weak link turns out to be the banking house of Jay Cooke and Company, which helped the U.S. Government finance the Civil War and also underwrote the construction of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Jay Cooke and Company, a large and respected banking house declares itself bankrupt, and announces its failure on September 18, 1873.. (The bank's collapse precipitates the "Panic of 1873" and the ensuing three yea depression during which more than 10,000 businesses fail.     The basic economic problems are overproduction, a declining market and deflation. Investors in Europe, where a depression is already underway, begin to call in American loans. The New York Stock Exchange closes its doors for 10 days; other businesses fail; and railroad construction is curtailed, with some railroads defaulting on their bonds. The unemployed begin to move about the country seeking jobs, and bread lines appear in the cities. The hard times drove numbers of laboring people and those in humble circumstances to the West and other portions of the country, to seek the rewards which the stagnation of business in the great commercial centre denied them.


Mar
12
comment Small World: Why does it use 3-point coins?
Another possibility is component efficiency (although base 2 is the best). The game comes with 35 (1VP) coins, and 20 (3VP) coins. If your next lowest denomination coin is 5VP instead of 3VP, you need 4 * (#Players = 5) + 4 * (#Races in Sideboard - 1 = 5) 1VP tokens. A grand total of 40 1VP tokens instead of only 20 1VP tokens using 3VP as your next denomination. (5VP) wouldn't be a component of a base10 numbering system, which is extremely inefficient with components, requiring 90 possible 1VP tokens.
Mar
8
comment Most human-like chess AI
@BrianS, Wikipedia says that Alan proposed the imitation test. Alan argued that machines could play a good game of chess, but was explaining that machines can imitate thinking.
Mar
7
comment Most human-like chess AI
you misunderstand. The Turing test is very domain specific (natural language interpretation). A computer designed to succeed at a Turing test would fail at chess. Similarly, Watson is great at Jepordy, but would fail at Chess. Computers are designed with very specific goals. You need to define what play like a human means.
Mar
7
comment Most human-like chess AI
You are really going to need to define what plays like a human means. Yes, computers don't play like humans do, not in the least, but that is probably by design. If you could articulate what you mean by, "play like a human," it might be possible to make a computer act like one. For example, in the Turing test, computers try to trick judges from believing that they are chatting with a human instead of a chat bot. The best chat bots fool judges about 30% of the time (humorously enough, some humans are mistaken for computers).
Mar
3
comment Can the Herald put itself on top of your draw deck?
Found the answer, from DonaldX, but i am mobile and cannot write it up yet.
Feb
19
comment Playing Cards from Unhinged and Unglued
I think [Mark Rosewater] wizards.com/Magic/Magazine/Article.aspx?x=mtgcom/daily/mr151) had a FAQ for the UN- sets, with "*UN-*official" rulings, but I cannot seem to find it.
Feb
19
comment Do Evolutions combine, for example Breath of Doom, Mecha Blast, and Claws of Steel?
"Unless a card specifically states that it affects all (other) Monsters" Do you have any documentation to support that? Also, I think you mean whereever you are not. You gave the example where when you are in Tokyo you do deal 4 damage.
Feb
12
comment What is your average VP score rolling 2 versus 4 dice after an initial 3322xx roll?
@corsiKa, I already did, "what ever results in the greatest VP on average." For example, if your 2nd roll is 33322x, you would decide to roll 22x. Keeping the 33322 and rolling x results in 3+ (1/3)VP. Keeping 333 and rolling 22x results in 3+ (0.5)VP.
Feb
12
comment What is your average VP score rolling 2 versus 4 dice after an initial 3322xx roll?
"for a total average of 1.5833," that is only for the 2nd roll. You need to continue the calculation for each of those intermediate steps. (I.e. Starting from (16/36) 3322xx, you get the best odds rolling all 4 dice (AVG 1.7523 supposedly), but that is just one state, you also have 33322x, 333322, 33222x, 332222. For those states you are probably rolling 3/2/3/2 dice respectively on the 3rd roll (haven't worked out the exact math)
Feb
12
comment What is your average VP score rolling 2 versus 4 dice after an initial 3322xx roll?
This question is specifically about the initial first roll, so only answering for the third roll isn't an answer. Additionally, if you roll 111, or 1111, or 222, etc. When rolling 4 dice you still score points. You need to factor those into your answer.
Feb
11
comment Is there a program/game i can build a deck and play against AI's without a net connection?
This probably doesn't exist. MtG has a fan made AI, but the designer notes some of its flaws. Most video game AI for this sort of games have a very limited number of cards in their decks, and have custom tuned responses for the cards it knows it has in its deck. You want some sort of generic AI that can play any card, and play that card properly in any deck. You want some sort of human level intelligence that no one is capable of (especially for free).
Feb
10
comment Do I have to move all units in the area I have attacked?
The only way I can see someone getting this wrong, is years of playing Risk incorrectly and applying those mistakes here. The rules for GoT are pretty clear on this matter.
Feb
9
comment Why so many people use “house rules” in EDH/Commander?
How are you going to get an objective answer to this question?
Feb
9
comment Can Bear Hug force a player to destroy an Incorporeal minion?
"By a strict meaning of the rules, no, Bear Hug does not affect the card," you have a strange interpretation of affect. If a card is moved, certainly something is moving it. If a card is returned, something is causing it to be returned. If a card has a action attached, an action is attaching to to the card. How is the Bear Hug not, destroying the Minion?
Feb
6
comment Does Monopoly involve skill to a considerable degree?
Monopoly base game. It has as much skill as tic-tac-toe (maybe more). You are going to need to define skill. People seem to have wildly different opinions what the word means, and how to measure it.
Feb
6
comment Can Bear Hug force a player to destroy an Incorporeal minion?
I will say it again, "Nothing in the Smash-Up rules tells you that players can affect cards. The rules specifically call out cards being affected by things that destroy, move, attach, etc.. The only things that have that "verbage" are Action cards and Minion cards. The Bear Hug card is telling you which cards to destroy, but it is doing the destroying. Getting Hung-up on how Mtg cares about sources is besides the point.
Feb
5
comment Can Bear Hug force a player to destroy an Incorporeal minion?
@ikegami, what makes you think the "player verbs" have any bearing on the matter? I see nothing in the rules that says players do anything. The rules do say to, "follow the instructions on the card," and the instructions on Bear Hug affect other player's creatures. Where is your evidence that players affect anything?
Feb
5
comment Can Bear Hug force a player to destroy an Incorporeal minion?
@ikegami, the rules state that you follow the instructions on the cards. Players don't affect anything, only cards do.
Jan
31
comment Penalty For Skipping Priority
@SamIam, it isn't reaction based, but the rules indicate if a warning is issued for Game Play Error, the other player receives a Failure to Maintain Game State. I would guess if you reacted fast enough that the opponent couldnt put the early draw in their hand your warning could be reduced.
Jan
31
comment Penalty For Skipping Priority
"As such, the resolution was to tap his land, he was not permitted to tap it to generate mana to cast any instants." That seems odd to me. Assuming he had waited to draw a card and did pass priority, he could have always tapped the land in response. Why would the judge rule this way?