In duplicate bridge, what is the penalty for someone bidding out of turn? Specifically, opening the bid by accident while sitting to the right of the dealer.
Here is a summary of the relevant rules that @Pieter Geerkens linked to. I am leaving out some of the more sophisticated points, for example, the fact that an artificial/conventional pass call is treated as a bid for the purposes of these rules. The guiding principle is not to punish the out-of-turn bidder, but to make it impossible for the offending team to benefit from the information improperly exchanged. That's why many of them refer to Law 23, which allows a TD to further adjust the score if it is determined that the offending team gained an advantage by the improper call.
In most cases, a bid on LHO's turn is treated as a change in call, which is treated separately. In practice this is a difficult mistake to make--you don't usually make two bids in immediate succession.
Pass out of Turn
- If no player has bid yet, offender must pass at next opportunity.
- After any player has bid, offender must pass at next opportunity; in addition, if offender passes at his partner's turn to call, offender's partner may not double or redouble.
Bid out of Turn
- If offender bids on RHO's turn, and RHO passes, offender must make the same bid, but there is no other penalty.
- If offender bids on RHO's turn, and RHO does not pass, offender may make any call. If the call is the same "denomination" as the original call (same suit or NT), offender's partner must pass at next opportunity. If the call is any other denomination, offender's partner must pass through the entire auction, and if offender's team defends, lead restrictions will go into effect (more on that in a bit).
- To explain the differences above: If partner bids 1C, and I get excited and bid to 2C before RHO passes, no harm done. If partner bids 1C, and I hasten and bid 2C, and RHO says, wait! I wanted to bid 2H, and I say OK, fine, 3C, that's not a very big deal. But if I say, wait, based on opponent's 2H bid, I want to bid diamonds instead... that conveys a huge amount of information about my hand to my partner, and allowing partner to continue to bid would be unfair.
- If offender bids on partner's turn, partner must pass through the entire auction, and lead restrictions may apply here as well.
- Lead restrictions: If a specific suit is named, declarer can require the offender's partner to either lead, or not lead, that suit at the player's first opportunity. A prohibition to lead the suit lasts as long as that player keeps the lead. If no specific suit is named, the declarer can prohibit offender's partner from leading any one suit.
Double / Redouble out of Turn
- In all cases, opponents have the choice to allow the double or redouble to stand. In this case, there is no penalty.
- If offender doubles on partner's turn, partner must pass through the auction.
- If offender doubles on RHO's turn, and RHO passes, the offender must make the same double or redouble, and offender's partner must pass at the next opportunity.
- If offender doubles on RHO's turn, and RHO does not pass, the offender may make any bid, but offender's partner must pass through the auction.
Here are the relevant rules for the various scenarios under your questions:
LAW 30 - PASS OUT OF ROTATION
When a player has passed out of rotation and the call is canceled, the option in Law 29A not having been exercised, the following provisions apply (if the pass is artificial, see C below): A. Before Any Player Has Bid When a player has passed out of rotation before any player has bid, the offender must pass when next it is his turn to call and Law 23 may apply. ...
LAW 31 - BID OUT OF ROTATION
When a player has bid out of rotation, has passed artificially or has passed partner’s artificial call (see Law 30C) and the call is canceled, the option in Law 29A not having been exercised, the following provisions apply: A. RHO’s Turn When the offender has called at his RHO’s turn to call, then: 1. if that opponent passes, offender must repeat the call out of rotation. When that call is legal there is no rectification. 2. if that opponent makes a legal* bid, double or redouble, offender may make any legal call. When this call (a) repeats the denomination of his bid out of rotation, offender’s partner must pass when next it is his turn to call (see Law 23). (b) does not repeat the denomination of his bid out of rotation, or if the call out of rotation was an artificial pass or a pass of partner’s artificial call, the lead restrictions in Law 26 may apply, and offender’s partner must pass whenever it is his turn to call (see Law 23). ....
LAW 32 - DOUBLE OR REDOUBLE OUT OF ROTATION
A double or redouble out of rotation may be accepted at the option of the opponent next in rotation (see Law 29A), except that an inadmissible double or redouble may never be accepted. If offender’s LHO nevertheless calls, see Law 36. If the call out of rotation is not accepted, it is canceled, the lead restriction in Law 26B may apply and: ... B. Made at RHO’s Turn to Call If a double or redouble out of rotation has been made when it was the offender’s RHO’s turn to call, then: 1. if offender’s RHO passes, offender must repeat his out-of-rotation double or redouble and there is no rectification unless the double or redouble is inadmissible, in which case Law 36 applies. 2. if offender’s RHO bids, doubles or redoubles, the offender may in turn make any legal call, but offender’s partner must pass whenever it is his turn to call. See Law 23 if the pass damages the nonoffending side.
LAW 23 - AWARENESS OF POTENTIAL DAMAGE
Whenever, in the opinion of the Director, an offender could have been aware at the time of his irregularity that this could well damage the non-offending side, the Director shall require the auction and play to continue (if not completed). When the play has been completed, the Director awards an adjusted score if he considers the offending side has gained an advantage through the irregularity*. * As, for example, by partner’s enforced pass.