Nations is a board game that has a high ranking on BoardGameGeek (currently ranked 7.97 out of 10 and ranked as the 39th favorite board game) that has a handicap system built in. As part of the initial setup each player selects the difficulty level they wish to play by placing a player disk of their color on the desired level. This difficulty level determines how many resources of a single type get added to their individual resource pool as part of the Maintenance Phase.
The resources that can be added include: Food, Stone or Gold; which are used throughout the game to take various actions and pay for upkeep. Resources are in short supply so by modifying the number of resources added you can have a significant effect on the difficulty between players.
Nations supports 4 different levels of difficulty ranging from Chieftain, Prince, King and Emperor. At the Chieftan level, you may add 4 resources of any one type at the start of each round; whereas Prince provides 3, King 2, and Emperor 1. It is recommended that new players start the game at Prince level. With the games lasting 8 rounds, this can be a difference of receiving up to 32 resources at Chieftan to a maximum of 8 resources at Emperor. I say "up to" and "max" because during the Maintenance Phase when you experience Growth (which is the stage at which you can add resources), you actually have a choice to add more resources or population. Population comes at a cost of increased food demands or stability, which are additional concepts of the game.