What are the specific types of permanents in the game? Are lands included in permanents?
The Basic Rulebook answers this question.
permanent—Lands, creatures, artifacts, enchantments, and planeswalkers are permanents. They enter the battlefield after you cast them. Token creatures are also permanents. Instants and sorceries are not permanents. They go to the graveyard after they resolve.
A permanent is any card or token on the battlefield. This includes lands, creatures, artifacts, enchantments, and planeswalkers.
Note that they have to actually be on the battlefield to be permanents. For example, a creature card on the battlefield is a permanent, though it's usually just referred to as a creature - the "permanent is implied". If it's on the stack, in the process of being cast, it's a creature spell, not a permanent. And if it's elsewhere like in your hand or graveyard, it's just a creature card, still not a permanent.