My friend had a Golden Urn on the board with 10 counters on it. If I destroy it and he sacs it in response to gain the life, is there anything that can be done about that? Like, can I put another destroy artifact on the stack to resolve before his sac resolves?
Golden Urn's ability is an Activated Ability. You would need an effect that counters activated abilities in order to prevent it. Stifle and Trickbind are the most common choices (In my own experience), though other similar cards do exist.
Golden Urn's ability cost includes sacrificing itself. Therefore, it is no longer on the field by the time you would have an opportunity to respond.
You cannot do anything to the Urn to stop the ability once they activate it. In an activated ability, the cost is the part before the colon. Since they sacrifice the Urn as part of the activation cost, it's already in the graveyard by the time you have a chance to resolve.
More specifically, starting with your destruction spell (or ability), here's what happens:
- You cast a spell that would destroy their Urn (Naturalize, for example).
- Your opponent gets a chance to respond, and they decide to activate the Urn's second ability. To do that, they tap the Urn and sacrifice it. Now, the Urn is in the graveyard and its ability is on the stack on top of your spell.
- You now have a chance to respond. You can't cast anything targeting the Urn, because it's not on the battlefield.
- Their ability resolves and they gain 10 life.
- Your artifact destruction spell does nothing to the Urn.
Note that while you can't do anything to the Urn to stop the ability, you can stop the ability itself. Stifle, for example, would allow you to counter the ability directly once they activate it.
Responding to the activation of Golden Urn's ability with another destroy effect will not work, since you cannot respond to the cost being paid (which is sacrificing the Urn in this case). Other answers explained it better, I just wanted to offer another solution: Krosan Grip.
Due to Split Second, your opponent will not have a chance to activate the Golden Urn in response, causing it to be destroyed without an opportunity to activate it. Note that Split Second does not prohibit abilities to trigger, in case that should matter.