Based on what you have written, your partner should not have redoubled with a "minimum supporting hand," which I take to be 6-9 points, perhaps more like 6-7 for reasons discussed below.
A redouble after an opening bid and takeout double means, "I think we've got them." It shows 10 high card points or more, which opposite your 14 means, "we've got at least 60% (out of 40) of the high card points between us.
You did the right thing to pass. If partner really had ten high card points, you would have made three diamonds. Two doubled overtricks are 200 points, and you would also have gotten 80 points below the line. If the opponents had fled to a major suit, you should have been able to double and set them with your partnership's presumed 24+ points, and relatively balanced hand.
The fact that you made only two diamonds, not three, suggests that partner had only 6-7 points; you and partner together had about 20, not 24+, and likewise the opponents, had about 20. (Unless this was an "unlucky" hand in which all the breaks and finesses went the wrong way.) If this was the case, one of your opponents should have bid one of a major, with the final likely contract being two of their major (which outranks two diamonds).
Your actual result seems to have been "fortuitous," (although possibly wrong: partner probably overbid with a redouble and scared the opponents out of what should have been a plus score for them. Even if they went down one, their minus 50 not vulnerable or minus 100 vulnerable (neither doubled), would have been less than letting you have 280 at a redoubled contract.