No. This is covered in the rulings for Renegade Doppelganger:
If Renegade Doppelganger becomes a copy of another creature, that doesn’t count as having a creature enter the battlefield. Renegade Doppelganger was already on the battlefield; it only changed its characteristics. If Renegade Doppelganger gains any enters-the-battlefield triggered abilities, they won’t do anything. The same is true of any “as [this creature] enters the battlefield” or “[this creature] enters the battlefield with” abilities.
Your renegade doppelganger will become an Umara raptor. but renegade doppleganger is not a Umara Raptor when Umara Raptor entered the battlefield and thus will not recieve a +1/+1 counter.
See following explanation:
Umara Raptor enters the battlefield:2 abilities will trigger
- Umara raptor will put a +1/+1 counter on itself.
- Renegade Doppelganger becomes a copy of Umara Raptor
There are currently no other "when ... enters the battlefield abilities present"
Both abilities will resolve. Umara Raptor is already on the battlefield after this.
EDIT: Note that Umara Raptors trigger can be split into 2 parts:
- Whenever Umara Raptor enters the battlefield (see BJ Myers answer, the Renegade Doppelganger never enters the battlefield because of his cloning ability)
- or another Ally enters the battlefield under your control (adressed in this answer)