"Artifact" means "artifact permanent", which means "artifact card or token on the battlefield".
109.2. If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes a card type or subtype, but doesn’t include the word “card,” “spell,” “source,” or “scheme,” it means a permanent of that card type or subtype on the battlefield.
110.1. A permanent is a card or token on the battlefield. [...]
To sacrifice a permanent, it is moved to the graveyard.
701.15a To sacrifice a permanent, its controller moves it from the battlefield directly to its owner’s graveyard. [...]
In fact, you can't sacrifice an object unless it's a permanent you control.
701.15a [...] A player can’t sacrifice something that isn’t a permanent, or something that’s a permanent he or she doesn’t control. [..]
So if you have sacrificed an artifact token, you have put an artifact you control into a graveyard from the battlefield, so your Marionette Master's triggered ability will trigger.