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Let's suppose I control a creature that my opponent owns, that I got under my control because of my Custody Battle on it. I also have a Synod Sanctum in play.

If I exile the creature with Synod Sanctum, and sacrifice it afterwards, I become the controller of that creature indefinitely, right? But a better move seems to exile Custody Battle. I remain the controler of the creature and don't need to sacrifice Synod Sanctum to keep it on the battlefield.

But what happens to the enchantment once I sacrifice the Synod? I saw on the gatherer page of the Synod a user that says:

if an Aura is put onto the battlefield via an effect apart from it being cast, you choose something for it to enchant when it comes into play. You can even enchant permanents with shroud this way, because getting an aura into play this way doesn't count as targeting with a spell/ability.

Is that right?

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The comprehensive rules say this about Auras as they enter play:

303.4. Some enchantments have the subtype “Aura.” An Aura enters the battlefield attached to an object or player. What an Aura can be attached to is defined by its enchant keyword ability (see rule 702.5, “Enchant”). Other effects can limit what a permanent can be enchanted by.

So, no matter how an aura enters the battlefield (usually by casting it, but Synod Sanctum works too) you choose what it is attached to. This is further specified in sub-section f:

303.4f If an Aura is entering the battlefield under a player’s control by any means other than by resolving as an Aura spell, and the effect putting it onto the battlefield doesn’t specify the object or player the Aura will enchant, that player chooses what it will enchant as the Aura enters the battlefield. The player must choose a legal object or player according to the Aura’s enchant ability and any other applicable effects.

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    Worth noting that an aura only targets when cast, so in this case, the aura could enchant a permanent with shroud or hexproof. – Neil Meyer Oct 12 '17 at 12:56
  • @NeilMeyer that's cool! Can you give a citation or is that simply based on "the phrase 'player chooses what it will enchant' doesn't use the word target, so it's all fine". – Reinstate Monica --Brondahl-- Oct 12 '17 at 16:49
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    The important part here is "An Aura enters the battlefield attached to an object or player". Shroud's ruling says : 702.18a. Shroud is a static ability. "Shroud" means "This permanent or player can't be the target of spells or abilities." So shroud only affects the targeting part of the aura, which is done on cast, as Neil said. – Ydrasaal Oct 12 '17 at 17:01
  • 114.1b Aura spells are always targeted. These are the only permanent spells with targets. An Aura’s target is specified by its enchant keyword ability (see rule 702.5, “Enchant”). The target(s) are chosen as the spell is cast; see rule 601.2c. An Aura permanent doesn’t target anything; only the spell is targeted. (An activated or triggered ability of an Aura permanent can also be targeted.) – Neil Meyer Oct 13 '17 at 8:13
  • See here for a detailed explanation. boardgames.stackexchange.com/questions/6553/… – Neil Meyer Oct 13 '17 at 8:14

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