Yes, it's a style of game that is recognized.
Some of the better ones:
- Descent (Mentioned in detail by Shannon, so I won't)
- Car Wars (pre-5th ed)
- HeroQuest/Advanced Heroquest (Milton Bradly - OOP)
- Space Hulk
- GW's Inquisitor
Battlestations is tricky, in that it's a board game of tactical shipboard actions, a board game of ship-to-ship or ship-vs-setup, and a role-playing game. It's excellent, and exactly fits the stated need. (If your need isn't well stated...) It's also a silly, Trek-ish but not Trek, setting. It does support campaign play and character development, as well as ship improvements.
Car Wars, like Battlestations, can be run as board game or RPG, and in one-off or campaign mode. At the moment, it's print-n-play, but SJG has the Compendium and some counters and supplements on e23. And there's a lot of fan-stuff out there, too. It's more work than Battlestations, as well.
Milton Bradley's HeroQuest and Advanced HeroQuest, and the spin-off Warhammer Quest, are highly tactical games of dungeon invasion. While out of print, the MB ones had all the rules posted on the HasBro web site for years, and may still. It's pretty doable to do this one up as a Print-n-play, tho' it is a lot of work. Due to it being joint GW and MB, a reprint is highly unlikely for any of them.
Space Hulk may say 2p, but many missions for 1st ed were multi-squad, and suitable for one player per squad. Just add 30% more blips per additional squad, and 20% more space... you will need multiple base boxes, tho'.
Inquisitor is a minis game. Officially in 56mm, the GW 30mm stuff works just fine by halving all ranges. Heck, it works fine just by using 30mm and not halving the ranges. It's most suited for ongoing games, but it's still quite doable for well prepped one-shots of multiple gangs at a storyline encounter.