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What is it called when a pawn takes a pawn by being passed by another pawn?

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If you are referring to when a pawn (On the fourth rank of the opponent's field) has a pawn move two squares (said pawns first move of the game, landing directly adjacent to the first), then you are referring to En Passant (being French for In Passing). This ruling came about after a change was made to the game of chess, for pawns were once only allowed to move up one square at a time, making the game slower and allowing for more possible pawn captures; after a time, a modification to pawn movement allowed them to move two squares on their (independent) first move, some liked this change, while others did not. Eventually a compromise was reached, and En Passant entered into the rules of chess, and continues to be a possibility to this day.

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    The immediacy of eligibility for such a capture really should be mentioned. And a direct quote of the relevant rule, in addition, would make this answer worthy of an up-vote. – Forget I was ever here Feb 3 '19 at 23:54

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