I remember that these dice went to a specific game that we played growing up. (I was born in '75.) But that is all I can remember!
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The dice appear to be from a game called Don't Bug Me, published in 1969/1970 by the Pacific Game Company (of California).
(Note that many other companies have released unrelated games under the same name too.)
The picture of a bug on the dice made me think of the game Beetle (also known as Beetle Drive). It's played by rolling a die, and drawing the relevant part of the beetle according to the number shown on the die. The first to complete their beetle drawing wins.
A comment below mentioned the game Cootie, which appears to be based upon the same idea, but using plastic parts to build a beetle. While the commenter recalls using a spinner, some editions included dice.
Here's one image from BoardGameGeek that has a similar coloured die (but doesn't show the "bug" face: