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I have read the freely available Battle Primer, which explains the core rules. However, I am still a bit confused regarding how exactly to resolve damage.

  • Imagine a unit of Space Marines gets 10 shots at a unit of Orks. The weapons of the Space Marines have an Armour Penetration value of -2, and a Damage Value of 2 as well.

  • Out of those ten shots, six shots hit. Of those six hits, four of them wound.

    The next step would require me to allocate "Wounds". How many Wounds did I generate? Is it 4, because 4 shots hit and passed the Wound roll? Or is it 8, because each shot would deal 2 damage?

  • The Ork player would then have to allocate the wounds and roll Saving Throws. Let's assume his Orks have a saving throw of 4+. Does this mean he has to roll 4 individual Saving Throws (one per shot) or 8 individual Saving Throws (one per damage).

  • Imagine one Ork had the ability to roll Invulnerability Saves. Are those Save rolls per-shot, or per-damage?

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Here's a step-by-step breakdown of the procedure. This is basically the same regardless of whether it's in Close Combat or Shooting.

  1. Select an Eligible Unit.
  2. Declare targets for all weapons before making any hit rolls (important in units with mixed weaponry)
  3. Pick one weapon type (in some situations you may need to attack with each weapon one at a time, but usually you can save time by rolling groups at once) and make your to hit rolls.
  4. For every Hit make a wound roll. Again sometimes you'll need to roll the wound rolls one at a time, but usually you can group them.
  5. For every wound your opponent needs to pick a model and make a save. If the AP (Armour Penetration) of your weapon makes their regular save worse than their Invulnerable save they'll use the Invulnerable. For a unit w/ multi-wound models, if a model already has a wound it must be picked first for this step. If the damage of the weapon is greater than the wounds of the picked model and that model fails the save it is removed and a new model is chosen for the next wound. Keep going until all the wounds are applied.
  6. Sometimes a unit will have an effect (often from another unit, or a psychic power) that lets it ignore damage (such as Disgustingly Resilient). Often this will be referred to as "Feel No Pain" as there was a universal rule with that name in previous editions. If so, for each point of damage it takes from failed wounds (or Mortal Wounds) it gets to make a FNP roll. If successful that damage is ignore. However note that a roll is made for each point of damage. So if a 2 wound model failed its save from a 3 Damage wound, it would need to make at least 2 of its FNP rolls to avoid dying.

If you've got mixed save units w/ FNP and multi-damage damage wounds you'll need to go through the process one at a time as things can get complicated. Once you've played a few games you'll figure out when and where you can speed things up by rolling multiple saves/FNP at once.

Note that mortal wounds ignore saves (regular and invulnerable) completely but don't usually ignore Feel No Pain type effects...

In the specific example of 8 hits > 4 wounds, the orks would make 4 saving throws (needing 6s). If you had a single ork with an invulnerable save, you could choose to roll against its Invulnerable, but if it fails that ork in particular would die. Since they're all single wound models, the extra damage is wasted.

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This is according to 8th edition rules. Damage multiplication comes after saving throws, so you roll saving throws per wound, not damage.

In your scenario, you have shot 10 times, hit 6 times, and wounded 4 times. For every wound roll you have passed, you have generated 1 wound. The Ork player allocates a wound and now has the ability to take a saving throw on that wound. If they fail the saving throw, it is then that you multiply the wound by the damage characteristic of the weapon.

For example, you shoot a laser cannon that does D6 damage at a squad of orks. It hits once, wounds once, they allocate the wound to a model, and then fail their 1 saving throw. After that, you would multiply that wound by the damage of a laser cannon (D6) and that ork with the allocated wound would take D6 damage. A wound can deal any amount of damage depending on the weapon (marked by the D on the data sheet for the weapon).

As far as invulnerable saves, they are per wound as well, and you choose to take those instead of your normal saving throw. It replaces that step, but AP does not effect invulnerable saves.

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