Today I played Catan for the first time: I was playing against a more experienced player. There were two (similar) points of contention I had with my opponent after I checked the rulebook. I'll write in each case what I gleaned from the rulebook and what my opponent said, and I'm hoping someone can tell me who was right.
I should note that we were using the Hebrew version, so (a) maybe the original rulebook has clearer wording that answers my question, and (b) the terminology I use may be incorrect, since I'm translating it back from the Hebrew.
- The rules say that I can replace a settlement with a city of my own on paying the appropriate price. They don't say that the settlement I'm replacing has to be mine. My opponent insisted that it does.
- The rules say that I can build a settlement only along an existing road. They don't say that the road needs to be mine. My opponent insisted that it does.
I'd appreciate any information — preferably official, but otherwise some evidence of what's usually done — that you can provide.