I have this peg board game called Bamboozle. There is a deck of cards from zero to 99 to match the holes in the board. The object of the game was to get five in a row, and when you held a card in your hand you were only allowed to play it and place your peg equal to or higher than the card played.
This game has been produced over the years in a number of very slightly different versions, originally stemming from a sociological study done in the 1960s; so while I haven't been able to find the rules for this version explicitly, an almost identical version was sold under the name "Poo-Ka-Boo", which helpfully has the rules printed on the back of the box.
For a slightly different version, 5ive Straight (aka The Game of 99!) is still produced.