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For example if I have Sphinx of the Second Sun out, giving me two untap upkeep and draw steps. Could I use a Planeswalker's ability on my first main phase, then again on my second main phase due to the second upkeep?

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    If you could use planeswalker abilities once per upkeep, I'm sure someone will brew a Paradox Haze deck with planeswalkers.
    – Allure
    Jul 23 at 5:15
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You can activate planeswalker abilities once per turn; the extra beginning phase granted by Sphinx of the Second Sun is part of your current turn and does not allow you to activate your planeswalkers again.

First of all, Sphinx of the Second Sun does not grant you extra main phases. After the extra beginning phase, the game will proceed to the ending phase.

Second, that extra beginning phase is part of your current turn. A player's turn begins with their first phase, and ends when all their phases have completed, no matter how many. Planeswalkers can be activated only once per turn:

606.3. A player may activate a loyalty ability of a permanent they control any time they have priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of their turn, but only if no player has previously activated a loyalty ability of that permanent that turn.

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No, you cannot get a second loyalty activation. By default, a planeswalker loyalty ability can be used only once per turn, during a main phase (emphasis mine):

606.3. A player may activate a loyalty ability of a permanent they control any time they have priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of their turn, but only if no player has previously activated a loyalty ability of that permanent that turn.

And the sphinx's ability just extends the same turn. It doesn't start a new one:

The additional beginning phase all happens during the current turn. Any effects that last “until your next turn” or similar won’t expire just because you’ll go through an additional beginning phase.

As an aside, even if loyalty ability refreshed per upkeep, you still wouldn't be able to use Sphinx of the Second Sun to re-activate a loyalty ability because the sphinx's extra upkeep is granted after your second main phase. And it doesn't actually give you another main phase afterwards where you could use a loyalty ability. This is clarified in the oracle rulings for the card

After the additional beginning phase, the game proceeds to the ending phase (unless something has added even more phases; see below.)

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  • So I agree due to the rule you can only activate loyalty abilities ones per turn. But if it were ones per upkeep, theoretically you could activate it one on your pre combat main phase, and a gain on your post combat main phase.
    – Amber Fox
    Jul 22 at 15:31
  • The wording is weird, but the extra beginning phase actually happens after your post-combat main phase
    – ryanyuyu
    Jul 22 at 15:32
  • Are you sure it says at the BEGINNING of your post combat main phase, so you will have the main phase after.
    – Amber Fox
    Jul 22 at 15:38
  • It's a trigger that happens then, but grants the phase afterwards
    – ryanyuyu
    Jul 22 at 15:41
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    – ryanyuyu
    Jul 22 at 16:01

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