It's white's turn to move. The uppermost squares are at the edge of the board. In the first figure and second figure, which arrows are legal? If the upward arrow is illegal in the second figure, then if black's pawn and walls together block all the paths to the edge, is it illegal for black to place walls in that position?
from the rules here
When two pawns face each other on neighbouring squares which are not separated by a fence, the player whose turn it is can jump the opponent’s pawn (and place himself behind him), thus advancing an extra square (fig.6). If there is a fence behind the said pawn, the player can place his pawn to the left or the right of the other pawn (fig.8 and 9)
So in example one the white player may not move ahead as that goes off the edge of the board. If the white player wants to jump the black pawn they may move left of right
In your second example the black player with walls either side blocks access to that specific square they're are in. I don't think they "block all the paths to the edge". As white can move backwards and go around to left or the right.
If it is possible for a player to reach the opposite side of the board, no matter how long the path, then they do not have all paths to the edge blocked.
According to these rules, yes, you can jump to the side of a figure on the edge, but you cannot jump straight over (off the edge):
If an adjacent square is occupied by another pawn, a player can jump over the pawn. If the square in the direction of the jump is accessible (i.e., not blocked by a wall and within the boundaries or the board), this is the only possible place where to jump to. If the square is inaccessible, a player can perform an L-shaped jump by following the direction to the pawn and then moving left or right of the pawn, provided the respective squares are accessible.
This thread on BGG, also confirms.