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If your Jin-Gitaxias, Core Augur get turned into a tree by a Song of the Dryads and the subsequent tree gets copied by a Vesuva or a Thespian's Stage, what exactly happens?

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The copy will be a copy of Jin-Gitaxias, Core Augur's original text.

Song of the Dryads changes a permanent's characteristics, but not its copyable attributes. The changed attributes make it a valid choice for Vesuva's ability and a valid target for Thespian Stage's ability, but those effects still copy the permanent's copyable attributes.

Rule 702.2 describes how copyable attributes work:

When copying an object, the copy acquires the copiable values of the original object’s characteristics and, for an object on the stack, choices made when casting or activating it (mode, targets, the value of X, whether it was kicked, how it will affect multiple targets, and so on). The copiable values are the values derived from the text printed on the object (that text being name, mana cost, color indicator, card type, subtype, supertype, rules text, power, toughness, and/or loyalty), as modified by other copy effects, by its face-down status, and by “as . . . enters the battlefield” and “as . . . is turned face up” abilities that set power and toughness (and may also set additional characteristics). Other effects (including type-changing and text-changing effects), status, counters, and stickers are not copied.

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    I like to summarize the way copy effects work as copying "the card, the whole card, and nothing but the card." The few exceptions to that generally seem to be obviously necessary to avoid some kind of nonsensical ambiguous or undefined game state.
    – Douglas
    Dec 12, 2022 at 1:41
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A friend of mine once described copy effects to me like this, and it works (paraphrased):

Take the card, and imagine scanning it with a photocopier. Take whatever comes out of the other side of the photocopier, and that's what your copy is.

That's the easiest way to resolve any copy questions. If you copy a Jin Gitaxias, then put the Jin Gitaxias through the photocopier. In the act of taking the Jin Gitaxias off the table and bringing it to the photocopy machine, you lose any counters, local enchantments, tapped/untapped status, phased in/out status, additional added/changed text (e.g. Magical Hack, Riding the Dilu Horse), etc. When you photocopy it, the photocopy doesn't have any of those things. That's what you get when you copy something.

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