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Wayta, Trainer Prodigy is a pretty easy card to understand. If something being dealt damage would cause an ability to trigger it happens twice. So effects like Polyraptor would create two copies from one damage source. Rite of Passage+Creature would add 2x +1/+1 counters, and Stuffy Doll would deal 2 damage instead of 1.

How does Wayta interact with cards like Marauding Raptor?

Marauding Raptor has a damaging component, and an effect based on if damage done & creature type match, but it's not worded as straight forward as traditional Enrage cards. Do these two interact, assuming the initial triggering effect is a 3/3 Vanilla Dinosaur?

Additionally: Does Wayta care about "Excess Damage", and when those effects trigger?

Most cards that use the "Excess Damage" mechanic have clauses specifying they only affect opponent creatures, or they're non-permanents. Wayta does not care about those cards. One outliner is Maarika, Brutal Gladiator (Zangief). If some effect allowed Maarika under your control to somehow over-damage one of your other creatures, causing you to sacrifice a permanent, would Wayta also be able to double that effect?

(Something you normally wouldn't want to happen, obviously. This is the only example currently, being a permanent and doesn't specify opponent-creatures. If there are better examples please mention them.)

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Wayta does not interact with Marauding Raptor.

Wayta only doubles the triggers of abilities that trigger off your creature being dealt damage. However, the ability of Marauding Raptor is triggered by another creature entering the battlefield. The +2/+0 effect is part of that ability's effect itself, conditional on the damaged creature being a Dinosaur. It's not a triggered ability itself.

113.2c An object may have multiple abilities. If the object is represented by a card, then aside from certain defined abilities that may be strung together on a single line (see rule 702, “Keyword Abilities”), each paragraph break in a card’s text marks a separate ability. [..]

603.1. Triggered abilities have a trigger condition and an effect. They are written as “[When/Whenever/At] [trigger condition or event], [effect]. [Instructions (if any).]”

Wayta does interact with Maarika.

When your Maarika deals damage to a creature you control, the resulting damage event has one of your creatures receiving damage. That causes Wayta to double the event. Excess damage only factors into this insofar as it determines whether or not Maarika triggers at all.

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  • The second part is not correct. Wayta does actually double triggered abilities that trigger from a creature dealing damage, as long as the damage was dealt to a creature you control. Wayta's first ruling mentions that it doubles the ability granted by Mephidross Vampire, which is "Whenever this creature deals damage to a creature, put a +1/+1 counter on this creature."
    – murgatroid99
    Nov 22, 2023 at 15:44
  • I don't understand that ruling. Wayta clearly states "damage being dealt to a creature you control", meaning your creature is the recipient of the damage. That is is not the same as "deals damage to a creature" of e.g. Mephidros Vampire, your creature being the source of the damage. Those area clearly different kinds of events.
    – Hackworth
    Nov 22, 2023 at 16:45
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    It would only double Mephidross Vampire's ability if the creature deals damage to a creature you control. In that case, dealing damage to a creature and damage being dealt to a creature you control is the same event.
    – murgatroid99
    Nov 22, 2023 at 16:47
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    Because dealing damage and being dealt damage is a single event.
    – murgatroid99
    Nov 22, 2023 at 17:03
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    The answer previously stated that Wayta does not interact with Maarika. I made comments suggesting that the referenced ruling justified changing that statement, and I deleted the comments because I considered them obsolete once the change had been made. I have undeleted my comments because I didn't expect deleting them to cause that confusion.
    – murgatroid99
    Nov 25, 2023 at 3:22
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Marauding Raptor has a damaging component, and an effect based on if damage done & creature type match, but it's not worded as straight forward as traditional Enrage cards.

Marauding Raptor isn't an Enrage card and isn't meant to be seen as similar to one. Instead, it was designed (in the same set) to enable cards with the Enrage mechanic. It deals damage to another creature; the idea is that you play this in a dinosaur tribal deck where "another creature" has an enrage ability, so you get synergy (at the expense of marking damage on the creature, which could kill it or make it temporarily more vulnerable).

The effect reads:

Whenever another creature enters the battlefield under your control, Marauding Raptor deals 2 damage to it. If a Dinosaur is dealt damage this way, Marauding Raptor gets +2/+0 until end of turn.

This is one effect, that is resolved all at once. The +2/+0 result is conditional, but it is not "triggered" by the damage that Marauding Raptor did to the other creature. Therefore, Wayta does not interact with this.

A triggered ability starts with "when" or "whenever", not "if". The entire effect is triggered by a creature entering the battlefield under your control - and not by a Dinosaur being dealt damage "this way". The phrase "this way", incidentally, is another hint that this sentence does not define a separate effect.

Does Wayta care about "Excess Damage", and when those effects trigger?

Wayta does not make any particular distinction regarding excess damage. However, to deal excess damage entails dealing damage. Maarika says

Whenever Maarika deals damage to a creature, if that creature was dealt excess damage this turn, that creature’s controller sacrifices a noncreature, nonland permanent.

That's a triggered ability (it starts with "whenever"), with an "intervening if". If Maarika deals damage to "a creature you control" while you also control Wayta, then "a creature you control" is "being dealt damage", and that event "causes a triggered ability of a permanent you control" to trigger (since we're in a situation where "Maarika deals damage to a creature"). When a source deals damage to a permanent, damage is (ordinarily) dealt to that permanent. The dealing and the being-dealt are not treated as separate events, since nothing can happen in between.

Therefore, Wayta's replacement effect ("If...") takes effect, creating another instance of the triggered ability. Each instance will then check whether "that creature was dealt excess damage this turn" (and normally the answer will be the same each time that's checked); for each instance where the condition was met, "that creature's controller" (which will normally be you, each time) sacrifices a noncreature, nonland permanent.

However, all of this depends on Maarika dealing damage (it doesn't have to be combat damage) to your own creature, while you also control Wayta. If for example you control Maarika and you attack an opponent who controls Wayta, and your opponent chump-blocks Maarika, Maarika's effect is not doubled up. That's because the triggered ability (on Maarika) that was "caused to trigger" by the excess combat damage, was not a triggered ability "of a permanent you control" (from your opponent's perspective).

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