Law 20 of The Laws of Duplicate Bridge deals with review and explanation of calls. Quoting partially:
F. Explanation of Calls
During the auction and before the final pass, any
player may request, but only at his own turn to
call, an explanation of the opponents’ prior auction.
He is entitled to know about calls actually
made, about relevant alternative ...
Holding AKx Kx QJxxxx Kx, it is unsatisfying and misleading to open 1D and rebid 3D. Most of your values are outside of diamonds and in fact you have decent stopping positions in all other suits. Opening 1NT conveys the hand type and playing strength more accurately.
Because the level of 3NT is too high to be supported by opener's values with only 20-21 HCP. Even 2NT is challenging if partner shows up with a bust opposite 20-21.
The appropriate way to show an 18-19 point hand using this style is to open 1 of a minor suit, and jump to 2NT over partner's response, as a forcing rebid.
Part of the challenge in bidding is ...
There are several common situations with different handlings:
Opener to your right bids your best suit and you have 12+ points:
Pass and hope partner can make a balancing double, which you can then convert to penalty by passing. Update The rationale in this case is that opponents, if partner is bust or close to it, actually have sufficient strength to bid ...
You bid it like you’d bid any other minimum balanced hand with no five-card major.
Open one of a minor. Rebid NT, raise partner’s major, or pass partner’s 1NT as appropriate.
Which minor you open is a matter of partnership agreement. The usual agreement in the US is that 1D can be on three with this shape, but there are some who prefer to have 1D always be ...
I can't speak for most experts, but I can speak for myself. I never downgrade a balanced 15-count. I occasionally upgrade a balanced 14-count, and I know several good players who do it more frequently (and announce "a good 14-17" when their partners open). Likewise, I never downgrade an 18-count into a 1NT opener, but occasionally upgrade a 17-count into a 1-...
Your understanding is correct: South would be the declarer, playing a contract of two spades doubled. Doubles (and redoubles) never change who is declarer, just the scores for making or failing to make the contract.
Has Marty Bergen's hand evaluation system been validated experimentally?
Yes - but not (as far as I know) with a Monte Carlo simulation. Experts have long known (and I mean long known - since before I learned the game in 1972) that Aces were undervalued and Quacks (Queens and Jacks) over-valued in Work's Point Count. Numerous remedies have been suggested ...
Other than the pedantic answer (any time Declarer can't possibly make), there are plenty of times that it doesn't have the impact you're suggesting.
First off, there are a lot of ways you can end up in a doubled contract. You might make a negative double and then your partner passes to convert to penalty, for example. That gives declarer some information, ...
2c seems clear.
This redouble doesn't offer good matchpoint odds. +180 and +380 rate to both score well, but -200 will often be much worse than -100. The reason is that -200 will lose to any part-score your opponents might make.
This is a curious question. You note that the context is five card majors, four card diamond bids, and three card club bids. When you agreed to play this system you must have realized that you would occasionally pick up a 4=4=3=2 hand. What was your plan? Never mind the ones with 14 HCP, how about 12 or 13 HCP?
I play 4-card diamond suits with one partner. ...
From the English Bridge Union Blue Book (Rules and Ethics):
Unless it is announceable (
), a pass
or bid must be alerted if
is not natural; or
is natural but has a potentially unexpected meaning
('Natural' has a long paragraph of definition; a natural pass is
which does not ...
I think you need to understand the concept of Captaincy.
During the process of bidding, it is not always the case where both players are trying to exchange information on an even ground. Sometimes one player will become the Captain and await his partner to give him the information. In other words, the Captain has the say to this bidding sequence. ...
In duplicate bridge, 6 spades making 6 is 980 not vulnerable, and 7 clubs doubled down 8 not vulnerable (5 tricks made out of 13 contracted) is -2000. With nobody vulnerable, you'd have to make 9 tricks to come out ahead bidding 7 over 6, scoring -800 for down 4.
Not vulnerable, doubled undertricks score accordingly:
You are, within certain constraints designed to prevent wholly destructive bidding systems, allowed to make any call that is:
any of a sufficient bid; a valid Double or Redouble; or Pass; and
not otherwise constrained by penalty under the Laws of Rubber Bridge consequent to a prior irregularity.
However your opponents are entitled to a full and complete ...
With xxx xx Jxxx Jxxx, the decision between 1S and 2C is very close. Any move that makes spades less attractive (eg holding only a doubleton) or clubs more attractive (eg a 5-card suit) breaks the "tie" in favor of 2C. Any of those three hands would be a clear 2C call for me.
If your partner has as little as that, your opponents are easily making 3NT and will find it difficult to double your side for penalties (low-level doubles are almost all for takeout these days). However, if your partner has as much as
xxx JTxxx AQx Kx
(and your partner might well hold that much even as a passed hand), your side can make 5H and your ...
An opening bid of 3 spades shows a somewhat weak hand with 7 spades. A hand like AKJxxxx Ax xx Qx would certainly never open 3S. Partner's hand in first or second seat is worth a 1S opening in my book; it's certainly better than any balanced 12-count. In third seat I might open 3S, since game is unlikely (partner is a passed hand) and LHO might have a good ...
Certainly it's reasonable, whether or not you are a Bergen acolyte. But it ought to be a rare hand where raising with only two trump is more attractive than the alternatives. These situations come up more often in competition. For instance, if the auction started
(1C) 1S (2C)
I would be happy to raise to 2S with something like
I agree ...
Strong Pass systems are very rare, and as a Highly Unusual method you will never encounter one outside extended team play or without notice.
In extremis, adopt your Strong 1C defence by substituting a 1C call for a double of a 1C opening, and warm up the Double cards if opponents open a fert (any call besides Pass that is definitely limited) instead.
Typically, with any strong hand (something like 17+) you should begin with a takeout double (if it's available — see below). In this case, your hand is even stronger than that, so you should probably cue bid hearts after almost any bid by partner:
after 3S, 4C, or 4D, you have enough to insist on game with very little from partner, so cue bid 4H to ...
Stewart's recommendation is reasonable in any standard system, whether 1NT is forcing or not.
Unless your partner's hand was very unusually distributed, it sounds like your partner was at fault for reversing with only 13 points.
Reversing means bidding at a new level (here 2 spades over 1 NT) in a higher ranking suit (spades ranks higher than hearts) than ...
To expand on the answer by ruds, the scoring also plays into the decision.
Where as it requires 10 tricks in a Major suit to make game, and 11 in a Minor, it takes only 9 tricks to contract for game in Notrump. This makes the required total strength required for a good shot at game about 4 Points less in Notrump (~25 combined HCP) than in the minor suit (~...
Note, the agreed meanings of bids must be agreed in advance, they may not be changed on the fly. In serious duplicate play, players have a written description of their agreements available to the opponents.
This changes it from an exercise in cryptography to a problem of card play and deduction. The idea is that a players opponents will have as much ...
I'd rather bid 1d there, not 2d. I think it's as likely you have game as they do; unlikely in either case, really. But you're discounting your partner having, first seat, something like ten points and a five card spade suit. That's 4S in the bag, if the points are useful ones (not wasted QH or whatnot). 6-7 spade tricks, a few in diamonds and clubs, and ...
It's not even particularly close - just open 1C.
In 4th seat the overriding consideration is the ability to make a plus score, and the use of Pierson Points to make that evaluation is widely regarded as the best (to date) means of assessing that prospect.
Here you have 12 HCP with 2.5 QT, well placed J and T, and another good spot card (albeit unsupported) ...
I would not be inclined to bid 1S with any of the hands mentioned, nor in most circumstances with a 2-card spade suit. With a minimum hand responding 1S on a three card suit might be better than 2C on four to the jack -- the decision is marginal. But bidding 1S with only 2 spades could easily find you in a 6- or even a 5-card fit, in a very bad place. I ...