Now there is AlphaGo by Deep Mind, a company recently bought by Google playing currently a match against 9p Lee Sedol. It is the Deep Blue of Go.
EDIT: The final result of the match of five games was AlphaGo 4 – Lee Sedol 1. This confirms the former conjecture: AlphaGo is the Deep Blue of Go.
In tsumegos where you should kill a group, the best (and thus correct) answer is always the solution where you kill unconditionally (if possible). Only if there is no unconditional kill the ko would be the best (correct) solution.
The basic idea is that a tsumego is a local fighting position which you should solve without knowledge of the rest of the board. ...
Yes. That white chain has only two liberties - A and the space next to A. If black fills both of them the chain will be captured. None of the surrounding black stones are vulnerable to capture because of their eyes, so white has no defense against this play.
The space next to A will have no liberties when black plays in it, but that is okay because ...
The 2 space extension is generally regarded as very hard to cut and thus solid, providing at least 1 eye with various options to gain a lot more eyespace easily.
However, invasions and attacks are still possible. The B1 move in your diagram is actually a standard invasion with the marked black stone around.
$$cm1 A possible invasion of two-space extension
There is a lot of discussion on whether starting on 19x19 or 9x9 is preferable, the general consensus tends to 9x9. Personally, I started on 19x19 but would have preferred 9x9.
As a beginner, you first need to understand the most basic melee fighting tactics (atari, ladder, snapback, basic life and death, etc). Those can be learned on both big and small ...
The small board focuses on close fighting. You're right; it is recommended for beginners for developing fighting skill and tactics, but the strategy component is lacking--at least when compared to a 19x19 board.
The big board is not just like playing 4 small board games next to each other. Through ladders and potential escape routes, the stones on one side ...
On the contrary, studying tactics for go is essential. Books or online resources on Joseki, Tesuji, and Life and Death situations are good places to start, followed by general opening strategy as you gain experience.
Playing games on 13x13 boards as well as the standard 19x19 will assist you in gaining experience in the balance between influence to the ...
Yes, but Black doesn't need to. Since each of the surrounding groups already have two eyes, there's no reason to play those stones. In fact, it will cost Black two points in Japanese scoring.
If one of the outside groups was in danger, then you could play at A and the point next to A to remove the group. When the second stone is played, both the two ...
First off, count the current score. If you're winning, do not invade. Just make sure you keep white small enough that you still win.
Let use further presume that black would be losing. You counted, so you know by how many points. A move around c could be parried with a sacrifice of two white stones while sealing off the rest of the upper right corner ...
Has the Monte Carlo method already been applied to other games? (Are there concrete implementations available?
Yes. This Grad paper might be of interest to you. It covers Backgammon, Bridge, Go, Scrabble, and Clobber.
Backgammon, implementation TD-gammon.
Bridge, implementation Bridge Barron. Probably outclassed these days by other computer ...
Most of the special terminology of Go is just Japanese Go terms adopted by English-speaking players. Depending on who you're dealing with, you can be just as likely to see references to "shimari" and "fuseki" as you are to see "corner enclosures" and "the opening".
A good beginner's resource for learning Go can be found at Sensei's Library. In particular, ...
How to study Go wrongly, a practical reference
Even though you already directly pointed in the right direction, let me disregard part of your actual question and answer differently first. Consider it a supplementary answer.
A common mistake in studying
I believe there is a typical trap many Western players easily fall into (I'm guilty of this myself): ...
You needed to finish the game, after which, assuming optimal play, White would have won by a very large margin (if it was their turn next) or a large margin (if it was Black’s turn).
The rules of go do vary a little, but it very rarely makes any difference to who wins, and certainly not in this case.
Charles Matthews wrote an excellent book on this topic, coincidentally called Shape Up!
It is available for free on the net, if you have a Gobase.org account simply grab it here, if not, Google should bring up something. To list a few of the ideas explained:
Part 1 of the book, "Principles of development", covers basic terminology (table shape etc.), wedge ...
In the West, Go is almost exclusively played for fun. The exception here would top players who strive for tournament price money. This is actually a pretty important, there have been intense discussions between the organizers of the major Go tournaments/congresses and top players about the sum and distribution of money.
In Asia, Go is more often than not ...
Molasses ko: http://denisfeldmann.fr/bestiary3.htm#mol
"The semeai in figure 11 is probably the worst known case of repetition. Known as "molasses ko", ..."
Denis Feldmann's Go Bestiary is a compendium of various things (interresting semeai, life and death, edge cases, incredible problems, rules edge cases, weird sekis, etc).
After a piece and/or group is completely out of liberties, it is removed immediately.
The only rule that would really prevent you from placing a stone back on the captured space is the ko rule, in which you can't re-place exactly the same stone that was just captured in such a way that it completely re-creates the board position from the previous turn (...
I would argue that AlphaGo's advantage cannot be significantly attributed to the novelty of its moves.
The original public AlphaGo games were those against Lee Sedol, the second ranked player in the world, in March 2016. At that time, as mentioned, several of AlphaGo's moves were novel, and surprising to Lee Sedol and observers.
Then, after players had had ...
The key is that killing the black stones doesn't give White an eye. After White captures the two stones, Black will throw in at the same place he played in #3. White can capture that stone too, but later in the game the stone above the capture will be placed in atari, and White will have to fill in the "eye" on the right. Because that can happen, it is a ...
There is no ELO rating in go. And even no official international rating at all. A common question in go forums is "how does my rating in [whatever country or online server] compare with [other country or online server]".
The European Go Federation is maintaining an international rating system where Ke Jie is rated 2956.
goratings.org is an individual ...
Here's the AlphaGo team's paper that has all of the details (behind a paywall): http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v529/n7587/full/nature16961.html
I gave a couple of tech talks about this recently.
This one is about how AlphaGo works and the match with Fan Hui 2p: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HTDxpxmFRGo
I gave another talk last year about why it's ...
In general, if you realize that you can't win, you should resign. It's considered rude to make plays that will only allow you to catch up if your opponent makes a stupid mistake.
I don't think Go is different from chess in this way. I would say around half of my games end in resignation.
Common starting practices are to open by placing stones on a Hoshi (4-4 point), or close to it, in order to "claim" that corner. As the players are trying to secure as much area as they can, it makes sense to start out in a place that is easily defended, and that is something that's true for corners more than for any other location on the board at the start ...
In the deviated form, white can play at B18 and the corner will live or die as a ko, or it can end up in seki. Even if black has more than enough ko threats to win the battle, it is unlikely ever worth it.
$$Wcm4 Continuation of deviation: Ko
$$ | 7 . 3 6 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . |
$$ | 2 1 a X X O . . . . ....
In all official rules that I know this means instant forfeit of the game. Of course, in casual play, mistakes like this can be allowed to take back at the will of the players.
In tournaments I would strongly advise against making such a mistake as well as trying to ask for a take back. If the other player does not seem to allow a take back by his own active ...
I started writing another comment, but it got too large, so I'm putting this as an answer instead.
Your other question suggests that you're envisaging playing go on the surface of an actual sphere/torus. In particular that question mentions that you want "all nodes more or less equidistant". Searching on the internet, I didn't find much evidence that this ...
White Q19 is a mistake. The correct move is R18. Then Black can't connect at Q19 because the stones would still be in atari.
$$c White survives!
After the capture, a and b are miai to make White a second eye.
$$c Resistance is futile!
I can only answer the Go perspective. I hear it is pretty much banned in chess.
Paper notebooks, or preferable kifus, are always allowed. If is not uncommon for tournament directors to supply players with kifus for free or cheap.
I've often seen people use electronic notebooks in Go tournaments to record their matches. However, this is usually accompanied ...
Sadly I do not have a reliable source for this answer, but as far as I know, continuing when clearly behind is not generally considered rude, at least at professional level.
One reasoning was that it is good manners to try your best until the end. Of course one would still try to play good moves to minimize the loss, not just play on for the sake of it. ...