If a player passes Go but doesn't ask for their money and the next player plays, does the first player still get their money if they ask only after the next round is played? I could not find this in the Monopoly rules.
Yes, you still collect $200.
From the rulebook:
Each time a player’s token lands on or passes over GO, whether by throwing the dice or drawing a card, the Banker pays him/her a $200 salary.
No mention of the player "asking" for the money or anything. It says the Banker pays him, so the Banker pays him.
Yes, it's an "accounting" transaction.
Another poster pointed out that the "banker" is supposed to pay the player. Let's say the banker doesn't. (There are only two players, and they're using "honor system" for "banking" transactions.)
The player is "entitled" to his $200 for passing go, and the honor system permits him to take it. In "real life," people sometimes "forget" or delay in collecting their paychecks, but the pay is still real.
Another example: The rules say that there are 32 houses and 12 hotels. Some of them are missing from the set. You use coins or other tokens to make up the difference, so that the game plays fairly. On the other hand, if a 33rd house somehow got mixed in from another set, you should play without it.